Early Intervention is a key element in long-term outcomes. Individuals with schizophrenia have been found to suffer with their disease an average of 2.8 years before they are correctly diagnosed and begin to receive treatment. This is particularly serious since “duration of untreated psychosis” (DUP) is one of the most significant negative predictors of long-term outcomes. 4 5 6

Early, Rigorous and Comprehensive Diagnosis with SIPS and SCID

(Meredith, G., Harris, L,.Harrigan, S., et al. The relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome: An eight-year prospective study. Schizophrenia Research, Volume 79, Issue 1 , Pages 85-93, 1 November 2005)

(Cannon, Tyrone D.;G. M. van Erp, Theo;Bearden, Carrie E.;Loewy, Rachel;Thompson, Paul;Toga, Arthur W.;Huttunen, Matti O.;Keshavan, Matcheri S.;Seidman, Larry J.;Tsuang, Ming T. Early & Late Neurodevelopmental Influences in the Prodrome to Schizophrenia: Contributions of Genes, Environment, & Their Interactions.Schiz.Bull, Vol 29(4), 2003, 653-669)

(Yung, A., et al, Validation of “prodromal” criteria to detect individuals at ultra high risk of psychosis: 2 year follow-up. Schiz. Research. Volume 105, Issue 1 , Pages 10-17, October 2008)

 

Algorithm-guided medication management (AGMM)

(Mojtabai, R. et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;67:26-36 Archives of General Psychiatry)

(Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 2003;23:342-8)

(Kashner, T; Rush, AJ; Crismon, AL; Toprac, M; Carmody, T; Miller, A; Trivedi, M; Wicker, A; Suppes, T. An Empirical Analysis of Cost Outcomes of the Texas Medication Algorithm Project, Psychiatric Services 2006; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.57.5.648)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Early Psychosis (CBTp)

CBTp is one of the most extensively researched psychosocial interventions for the treatment of psychosis and is the recommended standard treatment for psychotic disorders in the UK.

Morrison AP, French P, Walford L, et al. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of psychosis in people at ultra-high risk. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;185:291–297.

Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hutton P1, Taylor PJ. Psychol Med. 2014 Feb;44(3):449-68. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713000354. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Preventing a first episode of psychosis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled prevention trials of 12 month and longer-term follow-ups. van der Gaag M1, Smit F, Bechdolf A, French P, Linszen DH, Yung AR, McGorry P, Cuijpers P. Schizophr Res. 2013 Sep;149(1-3):56-62. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.07.004. Epub 2013 Jul 18

(Til Wykes, Ph.D.; Vyv Huddy, Ph.D.; Caroline Cellard, Ph.D.; Susan R. McGurk, Ph.D.; Pál Czobor, Ph.D. A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Remediation for Schizophrenia: Methodology and Effect Sizes. The American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 168, No. 5)

(Tarrier N., Wittkowski A., Kinney C., McCarthy E,. Morris, J., and Humphreys, L. Durability of the effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia: 12- month follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1998)

(Gleeson J.F. (2004. The first psychotic relapse: understanding the risks and the opportunities for prevention. In P.D. McGorry & J.F Gleeson (Eds.), Psychological Interventions in Early Psychosis: a treatment and book. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons)

(Gumley, A., O’Grady, M., McNay, L., Reilly, J., Poer, K., & Norrie, J. (20033) Early intervention for relapse in schizophrenia: results of a 12-month randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychological Medicine, 33, 419-431)

(James et al 2005 – full citation to come)

(Lewisohn and Clarke 1999 – full citation to come)

Individual Placement and Support (IPS) Employment/Education Services

(Rinaldi M., Killackey E., Smith J., Shepherd, G., Singh, S., & Craig, T. Frist episode 46 psychosis and employment: International Review of Psychiatry, April 2010, 22(2): 148-162)

Dooley, D. (2003). Unemployment, underemployment, and mental health: Conceptualizing employment status as a continuum. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32, 9-20.

Wing, J.K., & Brown, G.W. (1970). Institutionalization and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Study of Three Mental Hospitals. London: Cambridge University Press.

Bush, P.W., Drake, R.E., Xie, H., McHugo, G.J., & Haslett, W.R. (2009). The long-term impact of employment on mental health services and costs for persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 60, 1024-1031.